Political
Politics played a very big part in the city of Calicut from 600-1450 C.E. There were political differences among the city and many changes in government that sometimes took a turn for the worst or for the better. There were 2 powers that ultimately ruled Calicut: n the north, the Ezhimala kings, and in the south, the Aay Rojas. From 500-800 C.E there was political instability throughout the city and there were many invasions coming from both the north and south. The fighting went on for years, but in 800 the southern part of Calicut finally reached a solid political standpoint among its people and stopped the invasions for good.
The Second Chera Empire was established in the 9th century and ruled until 1122 C.E. The Chera kingdoms had man y confrontations with the Chola and Pandya kingdoms. Frequent wars with the two kingdoms weakend the Chera Empire and ultimately led to their destruction.After the fall of the Cheras Kerala (the region in which Calicut is located), was divided into many different districts which were called “Nadus.” Some of the Nadus were named Eranad and Polanad. The rulers of the Nadus were confined to small areas instead of large vast spaces. Eventually fighting broke out among the provincial rulers in order to gain more land and expand their kingdom. The ruler of Polanad, Porlarthris, controlled what will later be called Kozhikode.
Once a general of Aluddin Khilji the Sulthan of Delhi in 1310 all the empires that followed patriarchy came to an end. The Samantha Kshatriya and Nair dynasties who practiced Matriarchy and Naga worship was established and maintained thereafter. Eranad (a Nadu), ruled by Eradis was one of the kingdoms that had survived and flourished.

Social


In the Hindu religion there is a hierarchy that structures people by class or caste. The religions word for caste is “Varna.” Each Varna has certain duties and rights and its members can only work in occupations in that Varna. Each Varna also dictates the diet a person eats. The cast system in India dates back to about 1500 BC when powerful warriors called Aryans invaded northern India. Based on Hinduism, they divided their people into separate castes to regulate society.
The highest caste was called Brahmans, which were priests, teachers, and judges. Their job was to spread knowledge and teaching. The next caste was the Ksatriyas or the warrior caste. These people dominated government and were rulers and aristocrats. Below this caste were Vaisyas who were landlords, traders, shopkeepers, artisans, and businessmen. The last caste in the hierarchy was the Sudras who were peasants who would serve the other three castes. They had no social or economic rights.
Below all of the castes were the outcasts or the untouchables. These people were considered “pollution” and had jobs that polluted the air. Their jobs involved tasks so far beneath that they were forced to work at night so they were not seen. They were not allowed to enter temples, schools, and water wells from which they higher castes drew water.
The Varna are divided into communities called Jat. Food or diet, profession, and marriage are all determined by the Varna that a person is born into.
The area of Kerala there Calicut is located, had always had tolerant people who welcomed a mixture or religions. Buddhism was among the earliest religions in Calicut, however, the Brahmins introduced the Hindu religious structure of life, which soon became their way to wealth and power. The caste structure in Calicut was stronger than anywhere in the country. Religiously, if you did not belong to a Varna, you were considered an outcast. However, the Muslims, who arrived in the 8th century AD, were too strong religiously and had military power to be affected by the Hindu system. The Muslims, as well as the Christians, even had a two-tier hierarchy. The Muslims hierarchy consisted of the Sharif Jat, or upper class converts, and the Ajlaf Jat, or the lower class converts. The Christians who arrived in the 3rd century from Syria were traders and were given a high status in the business area of Calicut. The Jews in Calicut were in the business community and had aristocratic rights such as elephant and car use. Jews had trade privileges and they would also have servants announce their arrival when they entered a street so that people of lower castes would clear the way. Another religion that entered Calicut was Sikhism, who rejected the caste system and was not given the same equal rights and respects as the other religions. All of these religions had a major influence in the melting pot of Calicut.


Economic

Calicut was known as one of the most important trade center in India. Nediyirippu, or as the Europeans called him Zamorin, was the king of Calicut. He had a friendly approach to the traders, making more traders wanting to come back. Religious tolerance and good administration helped keep it this way, too. Calicut was a chief place for Arabs and the Chinese to meet. It was there that items from the west could go into the east and vice versa. It wasn't until much later that the French, English, and Dutch came into Calicut for trade opportunities. During medieval times, it was the key ingredient in pepper trade. However, the also traded coral, pearls, and precious jewels. The currency was fanam coins and silver coins. Fanam coins were made with 60% gold.

In 1498, a navigator from Portugal by the name of Vasco Da Gama. Because of him, India found a place in history. He found a sea route to India, helping trade connections from Europe to India. This gave Portugal international control of marine trade. Calicut was also primary in encouraging trade relations with Kerala. Later on, Portuguese sailors built forts and cities along the Baypore River. This caused hostility between Calicut and Portugal, resulting in countless battles. As Zamorin's strength decreased, Portugal gained control over sea trade in Calicut. This was due to a treaty signed in 1540, but it didn't last long. By 1721, the Dutch had came in to help get rid of Portuguese. Yet by this time, they withdrew from their native battles in Kerala.