Recent Changes

Friday, April 9

  1. page Timuktu- Siegel Tiranno Orama edited ... The book is World Eras Vol. 10: West African kingdoms Sarah- paul , i gave peter that book ye…
    ...
    The book is World Eras Vol. 10: West African kingdoms
    Sarah- paul , i gave peter that book yesterday.. he cited it... just double check it
    paul peter jsut didnt cite the book right re-cite it i retyped the abstract i have it with me
    During the time period 600-1450 CE there were many major silk route cities. The silk route is of one of the world's oldest and most historically important trade routes and it had many influences on the culture of China, Central Asia and the West. Timbuktu was a very important part of the silk route it could trade many of the necessities all over the Islamic and West African world. The Niger River was the main water route. Timbuktu had many extensive trading routes and provided a strong economic factor in Timbuktu. It made it possible to spread their religion, economic and political views. Timbuktu was and still is a very influential learning center. Also, the leaders had many open diplomatic relationships, and many military successes. Although there were many crucial civilizations that affected the world from 600-1450 C.E., Timbuktu had made a great effect on economic trade, social life and political ideas.
    ECONOMIC
    (view changes)
    9:23 am
  2. page Timuktu- Siegel Tiranno Orama edited ... Peter its paul i got the pages I don't the first Abstract that Ferrante edited The book is Wo…
    ...
    Peter its paul i got the pages I don't the first Abstract that Ferrante edited
    The book is World Eras Vol. 10: West African kingdoms
    Sarah- paul , i gave peter that book yesterday.. he cited it... just double check it
    During the time period 600-1450 CE there were many major silk route cities. The silk route is of one of the world's oldest and most historically important trade routes and it had many influences on the culture of China, Central Asia and the West. Timbuktu was a very important part of the silk route it could trade many of the necessities all over the Islamic and West African world. The Niger River was the main water route. Timbuktu had many extensive trading routes and provided a strong economic factor in Timbuktu. It made it possible to spread their religion, economic and political views. Timbuktu was and still is a very influential learning center. Also, the leaders had many open diplomatic relationships, and many military successes. Although there were many crucial civilizations that affected the world from 600-1450 C.E., Timbuktu had made a great effect on economic trade, social life and political ideas.
    ECONOMIC
    (view changes)
    9:21 am

Thursday, April 8

  1. page Calicut- Porcello, Mangano, Dantona edited ... The Structure of Calicut During the Post Classical Era, Southern India contributed many ideol…
    ...
    The Structure of Calicut
    During the Post Classical Era, Southern India contributed many ideologies to the Post Classical World. One of the most vital accomplishments that Southern India contributed during this time was the imperative trading centers. One of the most well known trading centers during this time was the "City of Spices", a name given to the city of Calicut located on the western border of Southern India. Calicut did not only provide a necessary trading center to the Indian Ocean Basin, it also provided a culturally diverse city as well as a stable authority, a product of its governmental rule and constant commerce. Overall, Calicut proved to be a crucial city that allowed for the prosperity and stabilization of Southern India.
    Governance
    After

    After
    the fall
    ...
    as long
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 4
    as the regional states continued to maintain order and deliver tax revenues on time. It could therefore be implied that Calicut had a regional state organization that mainly followed the regulations set by the Chola government during this time. Soon after the Chola forces conquered the Ceylon's, the Kingdom began to decline due to revolutions and revolts; however, it did not completely fall, it merely reduced in size and power.
    The next kingdom that dominated most of Southern India was the Kingdom of Vijayanagar. The Kingdom of Vijayanagar developed with the help of the Sultans of Delhi. Two officials, Harihara and Bukka, were sent to implement their policies on Southern India. However, they realized they could become independent rulers, and so the Kingdom of Vijayanagar developed. The Kingdom of Vijayanagar dominated much of Southern India for an extraordinary length of time until it fell to Mughal conquerors from the north in 1565.(cited in Traditions and Encounter, 2003). The Kingdom of Vijayanagar followed many of the same policies as the previous kingdom. Regional states developed throughout most of the kingdom as it too was decentralized.
    ...
    Chola officials.
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 5
    (cited in Traditions and Encounter, 2003). Calicut most likely had a temple within the city. Although Calicut fell in the shadow of the larger kingdoms that dominated most of Southern India, the stability kept by officials, as well as the laws they enforced on the city and its people, allowed for Calicut to stabilize and develop as a strong trading center and to prosper within the empire.
    Ethnicity
    Since the early formation of the maritime trade center Calicut, the city has been a multiethnic and multi-religious landmark. Due to the influx of Western Indian Ocean traders, the city of Calicut was very accepting of foreigners strongly due to the occupation of the town by many Portuguese officials. Hinduism was the primary religion of the Indian town, followed by Islam and Christianity, respectively. Religious customs, such as the gods or goddesses that were usually worshiped in Hinduism, drastically differed from those of other Indian port cities. As many other ports practiced Islam after their arrival and ultimately their take over. The Muslims of the land were almost always Sunni, the ‘descendants’ of the Shafi. While the Christians were introduced into the area in 52 Common Era, their population remained low until the Fifteenth Century.
    ...
    in Calicut.
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 6
    (cited in The New Book of Knowledge, 2010) Interestingly enough, many citizens of Calicut today worship ancestors on the female side of the family, known as matrilineal worship. This is interesting because even after all of the cultural adoptions faced by portside Calicut, the city managed to retain a practice introduced in the pre-Shang China era.
    After the brief rule of a Muslim Sultan in 1310 Common Era, the kingdoms of Samantha Kshatriya and Nair came into rule. Not so oddly, the society of Calicut during their rule was prominently a matriarch. Perhaps more commerce strengthened the idea of a matriarch, and eventually managed to overtake the region. Many travel and business documents have been recovered that date to this time. In particular, those of Chinese travelers such as Zheng He have been found in great number (cited in The New Book of Knowledge, 2010). This may help justify the spread of the matriarchal culture, even though travelers such as Zheng He were not pre-Shang, surely they retained these ways.
    ...
    than stellar.
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 7
    Economics
    Calicut

    Economics
    Calicut
    was dubbed
    ...
    grew stronger.
    Trade

    Trade
    along the
    ...
    more exports.
    Calicut

    Calicut
    allowed for
    ...
    for opportunities
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 8
    such

    such
    as trade
    ...
    that trade.
    Calicut was a small city within a large kingdom. However, achievements of the city were not proportional to its size. Calicut developed such a vital trading center to Southern India and became a powerful political organization which allowed for trade to prosper and the city to offer vital services to its citizens. This furthered the ability of the city to maintain stability. Lastly, the diverse culture that appeared as a result of trade allowed Calicut to be dubbed the "City of Spices" and provided Southern India with a stable, self-sufficient city from which the entire kingdom could benefit.
    The Society of Post-Classical Calicut 9
    ...
    India: History—Prehistory to 1947. (2010). Encyclopedia Americana. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from Grolier Online http://ea.grolier.com/article?id=0432861-00
    Karan, P. P. (2010). India. (B. G. Gokhale, Rev.). The New Book of Knowledge. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from Grolier Online http://nbk.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=a2014490-h
    ...
    //http://calicutheritage.blogspot.com/2009/06/// locating-calicut-port-where-exactly-was.html
    (view changes)
    7:39 pm
  2. page Calicut- Porcello, Mangano, Dantona edited ... The Structure of Calicut During the Post Classical Era, Southern India contributed many ideol…
    ...
    The Structure of Calicut
    During the Post Classical Era, Southern India contributed many ideologies to the Post Classical World. One of the most vital accomplishments that Southern India contributed during this time was the imperative trading centers. One of the most well known trading centers during this time was the "City of Spices", a name given to the city of Calicut located on the western border of Southern India. Calicut did not only provide a necessary trading center to the Indian Ocean Basin, it also provided a culturally diverse city as well as a stable authority, a product of its governmental rule and constant commerce. Overall, Calicut proved to be a crucial city that allowed for the prosperity and stabilization of Southern India.
    Governance
    After

    After
    the fall
    ...
    as long
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 4
    as the regional states continued to maintain order and deliver tax revenues on time. It could therefore be implied that Calicut had a regional state organization that mainly followed the regulations set by the Chola government during this time. Soon after the Chola forces conquered the Ceylon's, the Kingdom began to decline due to revolutions and revolts; however, it did not completely fall, it merely reduced in size and power.
    The next kingdom that dominated most of Southern India was the Kingdom of Vijayanagar. The Kingdom of Vijayanagar developed with the help of the Sultans of Delhi. Two officials, Harihara and Bukka, were sent to implement their policies on Southern India. However, they realized they could become independent rulers, and so the Kingdom of Vijayanagar developed. The Kingdom of Vijayanagar dominated much of Southern India for an extraordinary length of time until it fell to Mughal conquerors from the north in 1565.(cited in Traditions and Encounter, 2003). The Kingdom of Vijayanagar followed many of the same policies as the previous kingdom. Regional states developed throughout most of the kingdom as it too was decentralized.
    ...
    Chola officials.
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 5
    (cited in Traditions and Encounter, 2003). Calicut most likely had a temple within the city. Although Calicut fell in the shadow of the larger kingdoms that dominated most of Southern India, the stability kept by officials, as well as the laws they enforced on the city and its people, allowed for Calicut to stabilize and develop as a strong trading center and to prosper within the empire.
    Ethnicity
    Since the early formation of the maritime trade center Calicut, the city has been a multiethnic and multi-religious landmark. Due to the influx of Western Indian Ocean traders, the city of Calicut was very accepting of foreigners strongly due to the occupation of the town by many Portuguese officials. Hinduism was the primary religion of the Indian town, followed by Islam and Christianity, respectively. Religious customs, such as the gods or goddesses that were usually worshiped in Hinduism, drastically differed from those of other Indian port cities. As many other ports practiced Islam after their arrival and ultimately their take over. The Muslims of the land were almost always Sunni, the ‘descendants’ of the Shafi. While the Christians were introduced into the area in 52 Common Era, their population remained low until the Fifteenth Century.
    ...
    in Calicut.
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 6
    (cited in The New Book of Knowledge, 2010) Interestingly enough, many citizens of Calicut today worship ancestors on the female side of the family, known as matrilineal worship. This is interesting because even after all of the cultural adoptions faced by portside Calicut, the city managed to retain a practice introduced in the pre-Shang China era.
    After the brief rule of a Muslim Sultan in 1310 Common Era, the kingdoms of Samantha Kshatriya and Nair came into rule. Not so oddly, the society of Calicut during their rule was prominently a matriarch. Perhaps more commerce strengthened the idea of a matriarch, and eventually managed to overtake the region. Many travel and business documents have been recovered that date to this time. In particular, those of Chinese travelers such as Zheng He have been found in great number (cited in The New Book of Knowledge, 2010). This may help justify the spread of the matriarchal culture, even though travelers such as Zheng He were not pre-Shang, surely they retained these ways.
    ...
    than stellar.
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 7
    Economics
    Calicut

    Economics
    Calicut
    was dubbed
    ...
    grew stronger.
    Trade

    Trade
    along the
    ...
    more exports.
    The

    Calicut allowed for the stabilization of Southern India as it provided a steady income of revenue, as well as merchandise traded with other merchants. Calicut was a large port city however, many foreigners also came within the walls of the “City of Spices” for opportunities
    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 8
    such as trade as well as money. However it can be inferred that the larger the population became the more trade within and around the city. As more merchants enter the city with merchandise, internal trade would take place between the people of Calicut and other foreigners. As more items reached into the city, trade with other areas most likely increased as the desire for products not found in the natural resources of the land amplified. Therefore also giving it the name the “City of Spices” as Calicut, during that time, remained to be one of the largest exporters of spices (cited in Calicut Heritage, 2009). Thus, Calicut did not only provide imperative means to Southern India, but, to the surrounding countries that trade.

    Calicut was a small city within a large kingdom. However, achievements of the city were not proportional to its size. Calicut developed such a vital trading center to Southern India and became a powerful political organization which allowed for trade to prosper and the city to offer vital services to its citizens. This furthered the ability of the city to maintain stability. Lastly, the diverse culture that appeared as a result of trade allowed Calicut to be dubbed the "City of Spices" and provided Southern India with a stable, self-sufficient city from which the entire kingdom could benefit.
    The Society of Post-Classical Calicut 9
    ...
    India: History—Prehistory to 1947. (2010). Encyclopedia Americana. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from Grolier Online http://ea.grolier.com/article?id=0432861-00
    Karan, P. P. (2010). India. (B. G. Gokhale, Rev.). The New Book of Knowledge. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from Grolier Online http://nbk.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=a2014490-h
    ...
    //http://calicutheritage.blogspot.com/2009/06/// locating-calicut-port-where-exactly-was.html
    (view changes)
    7:38 pm
  3. page Calicut- Porcello, Mangano, Dantona edited ... The Structure of Calicut During the Post Classical Era, Southern India contributed many ideol…
    ...
    The Structure of Calicut
    During the Post Classical Era, Southern India contributed many ideologies to the Post Classical World. One of the most vital accomplishments that Southern India contributed during this time was the imperative trading centers. One of the most well known trading centers during this time was the "City of Spices", a name given to the city of Calicut located on the western border of Southern India. Calicut did not only provide a necessary trading center to the Indian Ocean Basin, it also provided a culturally diverse city as well as a stable authority, a product of its governmental rule and constant commerce. Overall, Calicut proved to be a crucial city that allowed for the prosperity and stabilization of Southern India.
    Governance
    After

    After
    the fall
    ...
    as long
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 4
    as the regional states continued to maintain order and deliver tax revenues on time. It could therefore be implied that Calicut had a regional state organization that mainly followed the regulations set by the Chola government during this time. Soon after the Chola forces conquered the Ceylon's, the Kingdom began to decline due to revolutions and revolts; however, it did not completely fall, it merely reduced in size and power.
    The next kingdom that dominated most of Southern India was the Kingdom of Vijayanagar. The Kingdom of Vijayanagar developed with the help of the Sultans of Delhi. Two officials, Harihara and Bukka, were sent to implement their policies on Southern India. However, they realized they could become independent rulers, and so the Kingdom of Vijayanagar developed. The Kingdom of Vijayanagar dominated much of Southern India for an extraordinary length of time until it fell to Mughal conquerors from the north in 1565.(cited in Traditions and Encounter, 2003). The Kingdom of Vijayanagar followed many of the same policies as the previous kingdom. Regional states developed throughout most of the kingdom as it too was decentralized.
    ...
    Chola officials.
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 5
    (cited in Traditions and Encounter, 2003). Calicut most likely had a temple within the city. Although Calicut fell in the shadow of the larger kingdoms that dominated most of Southern India, the stability kept by officials, as well as the laws they enforced on the city and its people, allowed for Calicut to stabilize and develop as a strong trading center and to prosper within the empire.
    Ethnicity
    Since the early formation of the maritime trade center Calicut, the city has been a multiethnic and multi-religious landmark. Due to the influx of Western Indian Ocean traders, the city of Calicut was very accepting of foreigners strongly due to the occupation of the town by many Portuguese officials. Hinduism was the primary religion of the Indian town, followed by Islam and Christianity, respectively. Religious customs, such as the gods or goddesses that were usually worshiped in Hinduism, drastically differed from those of other Indian port cities. As many other ports practiced Islam after their arrival and ultimately their take over. The Muslims of the land were almost always Sunni, the ‘descendants’ of the Shafi. While the Christians were introduced into the area in 52 Common Era, their population remained low until the Fifteenth Century.
    ...
    in Calicut.
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 6
    (cited in The New Book of Knowledge, 2010) Interestingly enough, many citizens of Calicut today worship ancestors on the female side of the family, known as matrilineal worship. This is interesting because even after all of the cultural adoptions faced by portside Calicut, the city managed to retain a practice introduced in the pre-Shang China era.
    After the brief rule of a Muslim Sultan in 1310 Common Era, the kingdoms of Samantha Kshatriya and Nair came into rule. Not so oddly, the society of Calicut during their rule was prominently a matriarch. Perhaps more commerce strengthened the idea of a matriarch, and eventually managed to overtake the region. Many travel and business documents have been recovered that date to this time. In particular, those of Chinese travelers such as Zheng He have been found in great number (cited in The New Book of Knowledge, 2010). This may help justify the spread of the matriarchal culture, even though travelers such as Zheng He were not pre-Shang, surely they retained these ways.
    ...
    than stellar.
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 7
    Economics
    Calicut

    Economics
    Calicut
    was dubbed
    ...
    grew stronger.
    Trade

    Trade
    along the
    ...
    more exports.
    The

    The
    Society of
    ...
    Calicut 8
    Calicut was a small city within a large kingdom. However, achievements of the city were not proportional to its size. Calicut developed such a vital trading center to Southern India and became a powerful political organization which allowed for trade to prosper and the city to offer vital services to its citizens. This furthered the ability of the city to maintain stability. Lastly, the diverse culture that appeared as a result of trade allowed Calicut to be dubbed the "City of Spices" and provided Southern India with a stable, self-sufficient city from which the entire kingdom could benefit.
    The Society of Post-Classical Calicut 9
    ...
    India: History—Prehistory to 1947. (2010). Encyclopedia Americana. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from Grolier Online http://ea.grolier.com/article?id=0432861-00
    Karan, P. P. (2010). India. (B. G. Gokhale, Rev.). The New Book of Knowledge. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from Grolier Online http://nbk.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=a2014490-h
    ...
    //http://calicutheritage.blogspot.com/2009/06/// locating-calicut-port-where-exactly-was.html
    (view changes)
    7:23 pm
  4. page Calicut- Porcello, Mangano, Dantona edited The The Society of Post-Classical Calicut Introduction 3 The Structure of Calicut Durin…
    The
    The
    Society of Post-Classical Calicut
    Introduction
    3
    The Structure of Calicut

    During the
    ...
    India. Calicut did not only providedprovide a necessary
    ...
    Southern India.
    Governmental Policies
    After

    Governance
    After
    the fall
    ...
    disorganization and ultimatelyultimate chaos. Due
    ...
    the Chola Kingdom.Kingdom (cited in Traditions and Encounter,. 2003). The Chola
    ...
    as long as
    The Society of Post-Classical Calicut 4
    as
    the regional
    ...
    implement their policespolicies on Southern India however,India. However, they realized
    ...
    north in 1565.1565.(cited in Traditions and Encounter, 2003). The Kingdom
    ...
    own regional statestate; however, they
    ...
    Chola officials.
    The Society of Post-Classical Calicut 5
    (cited in Traditions and Encounter, 2003).
    Calicut most
    ...
    and its peoplepeople, allowed for
    ...
    the empire.
    Social Customs
    Since

    Ethnicity
    Since
    the early
    ...
    of the medieval maritime trade
    ...
    the influx westernof Western Indian Ocean
    ...
    of Calicut has contracted a strong acceptancewas very accepting of foreigners,foreigners strongly due
    ...
    port cities. As many other ports practiced Islam after their arrival and ultimately their take over. The Muslims
    ...
    area in fifty two52 Common Era,
    ...
    until the fifteenth century.Fifteenth Century.
    The society
    ...
    represented as onone which radiated
    ...
    With the introductionbring-about of foreign
    ...
    cultural diffusion associated,associated with this trade, ancestral worshipingworship was also
    ...
    from other southSouth Asian communities,
    ...
    in Calicut.
    The Society of Post-Classical Calicut 6
    (cited in The New Book of Knowledge, 2010)
    Interestingly enough,
    ...
    Calicut today practice matrilineally, or the worshiping ofworship ancestors on
    ...
    of the family.family, known as matrilineal worship. This is
    ...
    China era.
    After

    After
    the brief
    ...
    Sultan in thirteen ten1310 Common Era,
    ...
    prominently a Matriarch.matriarch. Perhaps more
    ...
    idea of matrilineally,a matriarch, and eventually
    ...
    in great number.number (cited in The New Book of Knowledge, 2010). This may
    ...
    the matriarchal culture;culture, even though
    ...
    until the fifteenth century,Fifteenth Century, yet they didit evolved with supremacy.supremacy (cited in Traditions and Encounters, 2003). Christians from
    ...
    other lands. And becauseBecause the city
    ...
    stellar.
    The EconomySociety of Post-Classical Calicut
    Calicut is located in
    7
    Economics
    Calicut was dubbed
    the Southern Indian State"City of Kerala. It is the third largest city in Kerala. Calicut is most famously known for its nickname, which was givenSpices" during the Middle Ages. As stated earlier, Calicut’s nickname was “The City of Spices.” The name suited Calicut very much so because ofMedieval Era, due to its major rolevital importance in the trade of eastern spices. Calicut’s economy was stimulated greatly by the large amounts of trading occurring. Trading along the shores of the Indian Ocean was very common. Many people that lived inBasin. Calicut and traded made considerable profit. Calicut had trade connections with people from faraway places. Someserved as one of those places consisted of Europe, the Middle East, as far east as China, and more. The foreigners from those places would come by water to the majormost imperative trading point along the shore. There were many places for those people to staycenters in Southern India. Its location was the town, suchessential reason as quality inns. Therefore, it was more likely that outsiders would stay and trade longer and come back to why Calicut more frequently. Due tobecame such an important trading cite. Located along the large amountsWest Coast of tradeIndia along the Arabian Sea, contact between the small city states of Africa was manageable and foreign traders stayingnecessary in Calicut,order for the economy was booming. People had a good deal of money.
    Another reason that foreign traders would stop in
    Calicut to thrive. However, Calicut was that it was a multi-religious town. Being a town where people of different religious beliefs stayed and lived made the town more welcomingalso able to outsiders. People would feel more relaxedmake contact with empires such as China and safe stayingIslam. Calicut mainly traded textiles, beads, porcelain, incense, and undoubtedly, spices (cited in a town where their religion (alongThe Encyclopedia Americana, 2010). As trade proceeded with multiple others) was being practiced. Also, tradingvarious countries, the economy of Calicut inevitably grew stronger.
    Trade
    along the Silk Routes was very common. In fact, trading silk inalso helped stabilized the economy of Calicut was common because they did trade with China and other silk selling places. Silk was a desirable product,furthermore India. As Western Europe and many businesses near CalicutChina's exchange of goods continued, India partially benefited. Items from Europe would send peoplevoyage to India; India would trade and acquirethem with merchants from China as the silk. This is another reason whydistance from Europe to China was exceedingly far, and vice versa (cited in Calicut Heritage, 2009). As Calicut was such an important trading area.a major exporting city, it is most likely items produced by Calicut had a very stable economy because offound their trading andway into the whole kingdom profited from the large amounts of trade occurring.
    The economy of Calicut was extensive. It can be said
    Silk Road trade. Therefore, implying that most of thismanufacturing goods was becausecommonly done within Calicut was a main trading point along the Indian Ocean.
    Conclusion:
    Calicut
    and therefore provided an increase in jobs and evidently more exports.
    The Society of Post-Classical Calicut 8
    Calicut
    was a
    ...
    the city arewere not proportional.proportional to its size. Calicut developed
    ...
    furthered the city's ability of the city to maintain
    ...
    could benefit.
    References

    The Society of Post-Classical Calicut 9
    References:

    Bentley, Jerry H., Ziegler, Herbert F. (2003). Traditions and Encounters. (pp.417-418). New York, NY.
    India: History—Prehistory to 1947. (2010). Encyclopedia Americana. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from Grolier Online http://ea.grolier.com/article?id=0432861-00
    Karan, P. P. (2010). India. (B. G. Gokhale, Rev.). The New Book of Knowledge. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from Grolier Online http://nbk.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=a2014490-h
    People. (n.d.). Kozhikode (sec. 7) [Fact Document]. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from Wapedia website: http://wapedia.mobi/en/Kozhikode#7.
    Calicut
    Calicut Heritage Forum.
    ...
    2010, from http://calicutheritage.blogspot.com/2009/06///http://calicutheritage.blogspot.com/2009/06/// locating-calicut-port-where-exactly-was.html
    (view changes)
    7:21 pm
  5. page Calicut- Porcello, Mangano, Dantona edited The The Society of Introduction During the Post Classical Era, Southern India contributed man…
    TheThe Society of
    Introduction
    During the Post Classical Era, Southern India contributed many ideologies to the Post Classical World. One of the most vital accomplishments that Southern India contributed during this time was the imperative trading centers. One of the most well known trading centers during this time was the "City of Spices", a name given to the city of Calicut located on the western border of Southern India. Calicut not only provided a necessary trading center to the Indian Ocean Basin, it also provided a culturally diverse city as well as a stable authority, a product of its governmental rule and constant commerce. Overall, Calicut proved to be a crucial city that allowed for the prosperity and stabilization of Southern India.
    Governmental Policies
    After the fall of the Gupta Empire, Southern Asia was left in a state of disorganization and ultimately chaos. Due to the Deccan Plateau, Southern India found protection from the powerful invaders to the north. Under more stable conditions, local regional kings began to form which, for the time being, provided a loosely organized state to many cities such as Calicut. After approximately 200 years of regional kingdoms, the first large empire began to form in Southern India which was known as the Chola Kingdom. The Chola Kingdom formed from two regional kingdoms that expanded over much of Southern India, allowing the kingdom to have a lose grip over other regional states. The Chola Kingdom was mainly a decentralized government as many of the other kingdoms in the past were. However, compared to other government institutions that were developed in India, the Chola Kingdom was somewhat more centralized than others. The Chola Kingdom allowed for developments of villages and state institutes as long as the regional states continued to maintain order and deliver tax revenues on time. It could therefore be implied that Calicut had a regional state organization that mainly followed the regulations set by the Chola government during this time. Soon after the Chola forces conquered the Ceylon's, the Kingdom began to decline due to revolutions and revolts; however, it did not completely fall, it merely reduced in size and power.
    The next kingdom that dominated most of Southern India was the Kingdom of Vijayanagar. The Kingdom of Vijayanagar developed with the help of the Sultans of Delhi. Two officials, Harihara and Bukka, were sent to implement their polices on Southern India however, they realized they could become independent rulers, and so the Kingdom of Vijayanagar developed. The Kingdom of Vijayanagar dominated much of Southern India for an extraordinary length of time until it fell to Mughal conquerors from the north in 1565. The Kingdom of Vijayanagar followed many of the same policies as the previous kingdom. Regional states developed throughout most of the kingdom as it too was decentralized.
    ...
    the empire.
    Social

    Social
    Customs
    Since the early formation of the medieval maritime trade center Calicut, the city has been a multiethnic and multi-religious landmark. Due to the influx western Indian Ocean traders, the city of Calicut has contracted a strong acceptance of foreigners, strongly due to the occupation of the town by many Portuguese officials. Hinduism was the primary religion of the Indian town, followed by Islam and Christianity, respectively. Religious customs, such as the gods or goddesses that were usually worshiped in Hinduism, drastically differed from those of other Indian port cities. The Muslims of the land were almost always Sunni, the ‘descendants’ of the Shafi. While the Christians were introduced into the area in fifty two Common Era, their population remained low until the fifteenth century.
    The society of Calicut was often represented as on which radiated out from a main temple. These temples would often be dedicated to a goddess, or Devi, and would mostly dictate the culture and practices of that area. With the introduction of foreign religions such as Confucianism via trade and the cultural diffusion associated, ancestral worshiping was also a common sight amongst certain sects. When trade became dominant from other south Asian communities, their local religions and deities became more and more popular in Calicut. Interestingly enough, many citizens of Calicut today practice matrilineally, or the worshiping of ancestors on the female side of the family. This is interesting because even after all of the cultural adoptions faced by portside Calicut, the city managed to retain a practice introduced in the pre-Shang China era.
    After the brief rule of a Muslim Sultan in thirteen ten Common Era, the kingdoms of Samantha Kshatriya and Nair came into rule. Not so oddly, the society of Calicut during their rule was prominently a Matriarch. Perhaps more commerce strengthened the idea of matrilineally, and eventually managed to overtake the region. Many travel and business documents have been recovered that date to this time. In particular, those of Chinese travelers such as Zheng He have been found in great number. This may help justify the spread of the matriarchal culture; even though travelers such as Zheng He were not pre-Shang, surely they retained these ways.
    Christianity did not fully develop until the fifteenth century, yet they did with supremacy. Christians from the Indian cities Travancore and Cochin first settled in the hilly, higher elevated parts of the city, and generally separated from the population. Eventually, as they slowly advanced toward the inner city, the number of Christians boomed. As more and more citizens of Calicut became Christians, cultural diffusion nearly reversed itself. Now regions that were trading with Calicut would often pick up and retain Christianity, with Calicut commerce credited as the original source. Calicut can be summarized as a city of people highly influenced by trade and economics, to a point where the people even influenced other lands. And because the city was so trade oriented, the economy of Calicut became greater than stellar.
    ...
    of Calicut
    Calicut is located in the Southern Indian State of Kerala. It is the third largest city in Kerala. Calicut is most famously known for its nickname, which was given during the Middle Ages. As stated earlier, Calicut’s nickname was “The City of Spices.” The name suited Calicut very much so because of its major role in the trade of eastern spices. Calicut’s economy was stimulated greatly by the large amounts of trading occurring. Trading along the shores of the Indian Ocean was very common. Many people that lived in Calicut and traded made considerable profit. Calicut had trade connections with people from faraway places. Some of those places consisted of Europe, the Middle East, as far east as China, and more. The foreigners from those places would come by water to the major trading point along the shore. There were many places for those people to stay in the town, such as quality inns. Therefore, it was more likely that outsiders would stay and trade longer and come back to Calicut more frequently. Due to the large amounts of trade and foreign traders staying in Calicut, the economy was booming. People had a good deal of money.
    Another reason that foreign traders would stop in Calicut was that it was a multi-religious town. Being a town where people of different religious beliefs stayed and lived made the town more welcoming to outsiders. People would feel more relaxed and safe staying in a town where their religion (along with multiple others) was being practiced. Also, trading along the Silk Routes was very common. In fact, trading silk in Calicut was common because they did trade with China and other silk selling places. Silk was a desirable product, and many businesses near Calicut would send people to trade and acquire the silk. This is another reason why Calicut was such an important trading area. Calicut had a very stable economy because of their trading and the whole kingdom profited from the large amounts of trade occurring.
    The economy of Calicut was extensive. It can be said that most of this was because Calicut was a main trading point along the Indian Ocean.
    ConclusionConclusion:
    Calicut was a small city within a large kingdom. However, achievements of the city are not proportional. Calicut developed such a vital trading center to Southern India and became a powerful political organization which allowed for trade to prosper and the city to offer vital services to its citizens. This furthered the city's ability to maintain stability. Lastly, the diverse culture that appeared as a result of trade allowed Calicut to be dubbed the "City of Spices" and provided Southern India with a stable, self-sufficient city from which the entire kingdom could benefit.
    References
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    7:15 pm
  6. page Calicut- Porcello, Mangano, Dantona edited The The Society of Post-Classical Calicut Intro: Introduction During the ... India. Ca…
    The The Society of Post-Classical Calicut
    Intro:

    Introduction

    During the
    ...
    India. Calicut did not only
    ...
    Southern India.
    Governmental Policies
    After the fall of the Gupta Empire, Southern Asia was left in a state of disorganization and ultimately chaos. Due to the Deccan Plateau, Southern India found protection from the powerful invaders to the north. Under more stable conditions, local regional kings began to form which, for the time being, provided a loosely organized state to many cities such as Calicut. After approximately 200 years of regional kingdoms, the first large empire began to form in Southern India which was known as the Chola Kingdom. The Chola Kingdom formed from two regional kingdoms that expanded over much of Southern India, allowing the kingdom to have a lose grip over other regional states. The Chola Kingdom was mainly a decentralized government as many of the other kingdoms in the past were. However, compared to other government institutions that were developed in India, the Chola Kingdom was somewhat more centralized than others. The Chola Kingdom allowed for developments of villages and state institutes as long as the regional states continued to maintain order and deliver tax revenues on time. It could therefore be implied that Calicut had a regional state organization that mainly followed the regulations set by the Chola government during this time. Soon after the Chola forces conquered the Ceylon's, the Kingdom began to decline due to revolutions and revolts; however, it did not completely fall, it merely reduced in size and power.
    ...
    Social Customs
    Since the early formation of the medieval maritime trade center Calicut, the city has been a multiethnic and multi-religious landmark. Due to the influx western Indian Ocean traders, the city of Calicut has contracted a strong acceptance of foreigners, strongly due to the occupation of the town by many Portuguese officials. Hinduism was the primary religion of the Indian town, followed by Islam and Christianity, respectively. Religious customs, such as the gods or goddesses that were usually worshiped in Hinduism, drastically differed from those of other Indian port cities. The Muslims of the land were almost always Sunni, the ‘descendants’ of the Shafi. While the Christians were introduced into the area in fifty two Common Era, their population remained low until the fifteenth century.
    ...
    With the bring-aboutintroduction of foreign
    After the brief rule of a Muslim Sultan in thirteen ten Common Era, the kingdoms of Samantha Kshatriya and Nair came into rule. Not so oddly, the society of Calicut during their rule was prominently a Matriarch. Perhaps more commerce strengthened the idea of matrilineally, and eventually managed to overtake the region. Many travel and business documents have been recovered that date to this time. In particular, those of Chinese travelers such as Zheng He have been found in great number. This may help justify the spread of the matriarchal culture; even though travelers such as Zheng He were not pre-Shang, surely they retained these ways.
    ...
    than stellar.
    Economy

    The Economy
    of Calicut:Calicut
    Calicut is
    ...
    Middle Ages. As stated earlier, Calicut’s nickname
    ...
    in Calicut and traded formade considerable profit. Calicut
    ...
    and more. ThoseThe foreigners to the townfrom those places would come
    ...
    in the towntown, such as quality inns. Therefore,
    ...
    Silk was a desirable product, and many placesbusinesses near Calicut
    ...
    to trade to getand acquire the silk.
    The economy of Calicut was extensive. It can be said that most of this was because Calicut was a main trading point along the Indian Ocean.
    Conclusion:Conclusion
    Calicut was a small city within a large kingdom. However, achievements of the city are not proportional. Calicut developed such a vital trading center to Southern India and became a powerful political organization which allowed for trade to prosper and the city to offer vital services to its citizens. This furthered the city's ability to maintain stability. Lastly, the diverse culture that appeared as a result of trade allowed Calicut to be dubbed the "City of Spices" and provided Southern India with a stable, self-sufficient city from which the entire kingdom could benefit.
    References:References
    Bentley, Jerry H., Ziegler, Herbert F. (2003). Traditions and Encounters. (pp.417-418). New York, NY.
    India: History—Prehistory to 1947. (2010). Encyclopedia Americana. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from Grolier Online http://ea.grolier.com/article?id=0432861-00
    Karan, P. P. (2010). India. (B. G. Gokhale, Rev.). The New Book of Knowledge. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from Grolier Online http://nbk.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=a2014490-h
    People. (n.d.). Kozhikode (sec. 7) [Fact Document]. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from Wapedia website: http://wapedia.mobi/en/Kozhikode#7.
    ...
    http://calicutheritage.blogspot.com/2009/06/ locating-calicut-port-where-exactly-was.html
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  7. page Hangzhu- Spano, Butler, Kasman edited ... Within the Huangzhou culture, the practice of Neo-Confucianism was also a way to practice poli…
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    Within the Huangzhou culture, the practice of Neo-Confucianism was also a way to practice politics, morality, social and political structure as well as Buddhist beliefs like the nature of the soul and spiritual relationships. Neo-Confucianism was developed in Huangzhou during the late Tang dynasty. It came around due to conflicts between Buddhism and Confucianism. Under the Song dynasty Neo-Confucianism grew tremendously. It bridged the gap between the two religions and promoted social unity. Now that the two religions weren’t fighting against each other, it created stability in the city, allowing the city to progress in all political aspects.
    Conclusion-
    ...
    city of HuangzhouHangzhou during the
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    Neo-Confucianism helped HuangzhouHangzhou prosper and
    ...
    harmony, political teachingsteachings, and stable social structure Huangzhoustructure, Hangzhou stands out among the southeasternSoutheast Asian cities
    ...
    and successful imperial cities. Their knowledge and high sophistication was able to spread through different routes to other major cities, because of all. the easy access to trade routes, and share their prosperity throughout the Song dynasty.
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  8. page Hangzhu- Spano, Butler, Kasman edited ... Transistion Hangzhou was an imperial city in Southern Song China between the Yangzi and the Y…
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    Transistion
    Hangzhou was an imperial city in Southern Song China between the Yangzi and the Yellow rivers. This positioning helped produce fertile soil for crops which led to a great economic flourish. It was also right next to the Grand Canal. This entered a new system of trade, and modification of Hangzhou culture, effected by, and affecting many other traditions from encounters by missionaries, travelers, scholars, and traders. Since it was also in the system of trade through the Silk route, it was very profitable in gaining religious, cultural, and economic support. This benefit to the economic order brought forth a variety of cultural, religious, and patriarchal views, which altered the social system in various means. Religion traveled among the Silk Routes and Grand Canal, some including Buddhism, Daoism, Neo-Confucianism, and Hinduism. Many of these religions have already been in this domain during the time. But, from encounters by various travelers, the religions have greatly varied their perspectives.
    Womans 'womans' status!? Come on. watch your grammar!!The status of women was also
    Silk trade had also affected he traditions of nobles in the city. As a sign of respect, certain high classed civilians would trade silk robes to seal a deal, or give as gifts. This method of communication was adapted from the Post-Classical Chinese society, and was carried on from this time period from 600 CE to 1500 CE. One tradition that had been used in Hangzhou was the creating of tall multi-storied buildings, to compact the city in high elevation. Outsiders were impressed by this architecture, and lured in more traders to the city. It also was a sign of reaching the Buddha for the Buddhist religion because of the large altitude, and symbolism of Buddha being within the skies.
    The corruption of the former capital of the Song dynasty, Kinsai, brought forth a need for a new capital city. This became Hangzhou. Because Hangzhou became a new threat toward the prosperity of other nearby societies, Hangzhou needed a strong and well prepared military system. This was easy because of the many rivers and streams that blocked off the city from invaders, and the bad weather in the area.
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